Memory is the mental faculty of retaining and recalling past experiences. A
repressed memory is one that is retained in the sub conscious mind, where
one is not aware of it but where it can still affect both conscious thoughts
When memory is distorted or confabulated, the result can be what has been
called the False Memory Syndrome: a condition in which a person's identity
and interpersonal relationships are entered around a memory of traumatic
experience which is objectively false but in which the person strongly
believes. Note that the syndrome is not characterized by false memories as
such. We all have memories that are inaccurate. Rather, the syndrome may be
diagnosed when the memory is so deeply ingrained that it orients the
individual's entire personality and lifestyle, in turn disrupting all sorts
of other adaptive behaviors. The analogy to personality disorder is
intentional. False memory syndrome is especially destructive because the
person assiduously avoids confrontation with any evidence that might
challenge the memory. Thus it takes on a life of its own, encapsulated and
resistant to correction. The person may become so focused on the memory that
he or she may be effectively distracted from coping with real problems in
his or her life.
-- John F. Kihlstrom, Ph.D.
There are many models which try to explain how memory works. Nevertheless,
we do not know exactly how memory works. One of the most questionable models
of memory is the one which assumes that every experience a person has had is
'recorded' in memory and that some of these memories are of traumatic events
too terrible to want to remember. These terrible memories are locked away in
the sub conscious mind, i.e. repressed, only to be remembered in adulthood
when some triggering event opens the door to the unconscious. And, both
before and after the repressed memory is remembered, it causes physical and
mental disorders in a person.
Some people have made an effort to explain their pain, even cancer, as
coming from repressed memories of incest in the body. Scientists have
studied related phenomenon such as people whose hands bleed in certain
religious settings. Presumably such people, called stigmatics, "are not
revealing unconscious memories of being crucified as young children, but
rather are demonstrating a fascinating psychogenic anomaly that springs from
their conscious fixation on the suffering of Christ. Similarly, it is
possible that conscious fixation on the idea that one was sexually abused
might increase the frequency of some physical symptoms, regardless of
whether or not the abuse really occurred."(Lindsay & Read, 1994)
This view of memory has two elements: (1) the accuracy element and (2) the
causal element. The reason this model is questionable is not because people
don't have unpleasant or painful experiences they would rather forget, nor
is it claiming that children often experience both wonderful and brutal
things for which they have no conceptual or linguistic framework and hence
are incapable of understanding them, much less relating it to others. It is
questionable because this model maintains that because (a) one is having
problems of functioning as a healthy human being and (b) one remembers being
abused as a child that therefore (A) one was abused as a child and (B) the
childhood abuse is the cause of one's adulthood problems.
There is no evidence that supports the claim that we remember everything
that we experience. In fact, there is plenty of evidence to support the
claim that it is impossible for us to even attend to all the perceptual
elements of any given experience, much less to recall them all. There is no
evidence to support the claim that all memories of experiences happened as
they remembered to have happened or that they have even happened at all. And
there is no evidence to support the claim that subjective certainty about
the accuracy of memories or the vividness of memories significantly
correlates with accuracy. Finally, the claim of a causal connection between
abuse and health or behavior does not warrant concluding that ill health,
mental or physical, is a 'sign' of having been abused.
This model is the basis for a number of pseudoscientific works on child
abuse by self-proclaimed experts such as Ellen Bass, E. Sue Blum, Laura
Davis, Beverly Engel, Beverly Holman, Wendy Maltz and Mary Jane Williams.
Through communal reinforcement many empirically unsupported notions,
including the claim that about half of all women have been sexually abused,
get treated as a 'fact' by many people. Psychologist Carol Tavris writes
In what can only be called an incestuous arrangement, the authors of these
books all rely on one another's work as supporting evidence for their own;
they all recommend one another's books to their readers. If one of them
comes up with a concocted statistic--such as "more than half of all women
survivors of childhood sexual trauma "-- the numbers are traded like
baseball cards, reprinted in every book and eventually enshrined as fact.
Thus the cycle of misinformation, faulty statistics and unvalidated
assertions maintains itself. (Tavris, 1993)
The only difference between this group of experts and say, a group of
physicists is that the child abuse experts have achieved their status as
authorities not by scientific training but by either (a) experience [they
were victims themselves or they have treated victims of abuse in their
capacity as social workers] or (b) they wrote a book on child abuse. The
child abuse experts are not trained in scientific research which is not a
comment on their ability to write or to do therapy, but which does seem to
be one reason for their scientific illiteracy. (Tavris, 1993)
Here are a few of the unproved, unscientifically researched notions that
are being bandied around by these child abuse experts: One, if you doubt
that you were abused as a child or think that it might be your imagination,
this is a sign of 'post-incest syndrome'. Two, if you can not remember any
specific instances of being abused, but still have a feeling that something
abusive happened to you, 'it probably did'. Three, when a person can not
remember his or her childhood or have very fuzzy memories, 'incest must
always be considered as a possibility'. And four, 'If you have any suspicion
at all, if you have any memory, no matter how vague, it probably really
happened. It is far more likely that you are blocking the memories, denying
There have been many symptoms suggested as indicators of past abuse. These
symptoms range from headaches to irritable bowls. In fact, one psychologist
compiled a list of over 900 different symptoms that had been presented as
proof of a history of abuse. When he reviewed the professional literature,
he found that not one of the symptoms could be shown to be an inclusive
indication of a history of abuse. Given the lack of consistent scientific
evidence, therapists must be careful in declaring that abuse has infact
occurred. (London, 1995)
Whole industries have been built up out of the hysteria that inevitably
accompanies charges of the sexual abuse of children. Therapists who are
supposed to help children recover from the trauma of the abuse are hired to
interrogate the child, in order to find out if they have been abused. But
all too often the therapist suggests the abuse to the child and the child
has 'memories' of being abused, but no rational person should find a parent
or caretaker guilty on the basis of such tainted testimony. [note 1]
Increasingly throughout the continent, grown children under going
therapeutic programs have come to believe that they suffer from "repressed
memories" of incest and sexual abuse. While some reports of incest and
sexual abuse are surely true, these decade delayed memories are too often
the result of False Memory Syndrome caused by a disastrous "therapeutic"
program. False Memory Syndrome has a devastating effect on the victim and
typically produces a continuing dependency on the very program that creates
the syndrome. False Memory Syndrome proceeds to destroy the psychological
well being not only of the primary victim but through false accusations of
incest and sexual abuse other members of the primary victim's family. The
American Medical Association considers recovered memories of childhood
sexual abuse to be of uncertain authenticity, which should be subject to
external verification. The use of recovered memories is fraught with
problems of potential misapplication.[note 2]
The dangers of this model are apparent: not only are false memories treated
as real memories, but real memories of real abuse may be treated as false
memories and may provide real abusers with a believable defense. In the end,
no one benefits from encouraging a belief in memory which is unfounded.
Whatever the theory of memory one advocates, if it does not entail examining
corroborating evidence and attempting to independently verify claims of
recollected abuse, it is a theory which will cause more harm than good.
Carl Jung, an early Freudian disciple and later heretic, extended this
model of memory by adding another area of repressed memories to the
unconscious mind, an area that was not based on individual past experiences
at all: the "collective" unconscious. The collective unconscious is the
repository for acts and mental patterns shared either by members of a
culture or universally by all humans. Under certain conditions these
manifest themselves as archetype: images, patterns and symbols, that are
often seen in dreams or fantasies and that appear as themes in mythology,
religion and fairy tales. The Archetype of the Archetype Model can be traced
back to Plato's various beliefs about the eidos. (Forms of reality which
were variously described by Plato but always were held up as 'more real'
than the world of sense experience which, in some way, was always held up as
inferior to and dependant on the eidos.)
The Platonic Model avoids the problem of determining whether or not a
memory is accurate by claiming that the memory is not of a personal
experience at all. It also confuses several types of mental states. It
completely blurs the distinction between dream states and conscious states
by eliminating the difference between remembering a sense experience one
actually had and remembering a sense experience one never actually had. This
model gives validity to every fantasy and desire. If one is clever, though,
one can destroy the first model with the second one. For example, a Jungian
could claim that the repressed memories of all those who are now blaming
their current troubles on forgotten and repressed memories of child abuse,
are not memories of actual abuse but of an Archetype, the Abused Child
Archetype. The story of Hansel and Gretel might be pulled in for
"scientific" support of the idea. Unsupported assertions might be made
regarding the unconscious desire of all children to be loved by their
parents: as children, love could only be understood in terms of ego
gratification, but as adults love is understood primarily in sexual terms.
Because of the incest taboo, we can not bear the thought of wanting to be
loved sexually by our parents, so this desire must be expressed in a
perverse and inverse way: our parents love us sexually. But there is no
evidence for this based upon our past or current relationship with our
parents, so the mind creates the evidence by remembering being sexually
abused as a child. Thus, the memory we have as adults of being sexually
abused by our parents is actually the expression of the universal desire to
be loved by our mother and father. It has nothing to do with any real
experience; it has everything to do with a universal human desire. It also
serves as a convenient excuse to absolve us of all responsibility for our
failures and incompetence. The reason we are so screwed up is because our
parents screwed us!
How accurate and reliable is memory? We're often wrong in thinking we
accurately remember things. Studies on memory have shown that we often
construct our memories after the fact, that we are susceptible to
suggestions from others that help us fill in the gaps in our memories of
certain events. (Hyman, Jr., Husband & Billings, 1995) That is why, for
example, a police officer investigating a crime should not show a picture of
a single individual to a victim and ask if the victim recognizes the
assailant. If the victim is then presented a line up and picks out the
individual whose picture the victim had been shown, there is no way of
knowing whether the victim is remembering the assailant or the picture.
Another interesting fact about memory is that studies have shown that there
is no significant correlation between the subjective feeling of certainty a
person has about memory and that memory being accurate. Also, contrary to
what many believe, hypnosis does not aid memory's accuracy because subjects
are extremely suggestible while under hypnosis. (Loftus, 1980) It is
possible to create false memories in people's minds by suggestion.
The mind does not record every detail of an event, but only a few features;
we fill in the rest on what "must have been." For an event to make it to
long term storage, a person has to perceive it, encode it and rehearse it
--tell about it-- or it decays. (This seems to be the major mechanism behind
childhood amnesia, the fact that children do not develop long term memory
until roughly age three.) Otherwise, research finds, even emotional
experiences we are sure we will never forget --the Kennedy assassination,
the Challenger explosion-- will fade from memory, and errors will creep into
the account that remain.(Travis, 1993)
Research articles and court testimony confirm the wide spread use of memory
enhancement techniques, in the belief that these will help recover accurate
"memories". These techniques include hypnosis, sodium amytal, dream
interpretation, guided imagery, journaling, body massages, participation in
survivor groups and reading of self help books. In the summer of 1993, the
American Medical Association passed a resolution warning of the dangers of
misapplication in the use of these techniques. In June of 1994 they issued a
warning about all recovered memories. Both the AMA and the American
Psychiatric Association have stated:
..there is no completely accurate way of determining the validity of reports
in the absence of corroborating information.[note 3]
The problem with the practices mentioned above is that when they are used
they increase the risk of influence and suggestibility.
Why would someone remember something so horrible if it really did not
happen? This is a haunting question, but there are several possible
explanations which might shed light on some of the false memories. A
pseudomemory, for example, may be a kind of symbolic expression of troubled
family relationships. There may be a cultural climate in our society in
which the belief in the relationship between sexual abuse and individual
pathology is nurtured. It may be that in such a climate people more readily
believe things happened when they didn't. When people enter therapy, they do
so to get better. They want to change. People also tend to look for some
explanation for why they have a problem. Clients come to trust the person
they have chosen to help them. Because they are trying to get better,
clients tend to rely on the therapist's opinion. If the therapist believes
that the reason that the client has a problem is because of some past
trauma, and especially if the therapist believes that the patient will not
get better unless he or she remembers the trauma, the patient will work to
find what he or she thinks is a trauma memory in order to get better.
Richard Ofshe, Ph.D. and Ethan Watters noted that, "No one -- not the
patients, therapists, parents or critics of recovered memory therapy --
question that this therapy is an intensely difficult and painful experience.
That the pain of therapy is real should not be accepted, however, as an
argument that the memories uncovered are accurate. One's emotional reaction
to a perceived memory need not correlate with the veracity of that event,
but rather only to whether one believes that event to be true."[note 4]
Therapists may believe that they are helping clients and improving a
culture in which sex abuse is far too prevalent. A patient may find group
acceptance in the cadre of survivors and find "the" reason for problems.
Patients suffering from severe psychological symptoms are known to engage in
what is called, "effort after meaning" (Bass & Davis, 1988), in that they
seek some explanation, however remote, for suffering.
So, should accounts of repressed memory be dismissed out of hand? Of course
not! But there should be an attempt to corroborate such memories with
independent evidence and testimony before drawing conclusions about actual
abuses or crimes. Such accounts should be taken very seriously and should be
critically examined, giving them all the attention and investigative
analysis we would give to any allegation of crime. But we should not rush to
judgement, either about the accuracy of the memories of about the causal
connection between past experiences and present problems. We should neither
automatically reject as false memories which have been repressed for years
and are suddenly recollected, nor should we automatically accept such
memories as true. In terms of verification of their accuracy, these memories
should not be treated any differently than any other type of memory.
1. Yet, it has happened. In a modern version of the Salem witch hunts, the
McMartin pre-school case exemplifies the very worst in institutionalized
justice on the hunt for child molesters.
See, Mason, M. (Sept. 1991). The McMartin case revisited: the conflict
between social work and criminal justice, Social Work, v.36, no.5.
391-396. [on evaluating the credibility of children as witnesses in sexual
abuse cases] ,
2. See, Council on Scientific Affairs, (1994). American Medical
Association, June 16.
3. See, Council on Scientific Affairs, (1994). American Medical
Association, June 16.
4. See, Ofshe, R., & Watters, E., (1994). Making Monsters: False Memory,
Psychotherapy and Sexual Hysteria. p.109.
Bass, E. & Davis, L., (1988). The Courage To Heal, p.173.
Council on Scientific Affairs, (1994). American Medical Association, June 16.
Hyman, I.E. Jr., Husband, T.H. & Billings, F.J., (1995). Prompting false
childhood memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, pp.181-197.
Lindsay, S. & Read, D., (1994). Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, p.302.
London., (1995). Independent Practitioner, March 1, 64.
Loftus, E., (1980). Memory, Surprising New Insights Into How We Remember
and Why We Forget, Reading, Mass,: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Loftus, E., & Ketcham, K., (1987). Eye Witness Testimony: Civil and
Criminal, New York, N.Y.: Kluwer Law Book Publishers.
Loftus, E., (1980). Eye Witness Testimony, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
Mason, M., (Sept. 1991). The McMartin case revisited: the conflict between
social work and criminal justice," Social Work, 36, no. 5, pp.391-396.
Ofshe, R., & Watters, E., (1994). Making Monsters: False Memory,
Psychotherapy and Sexual Hysteria. p.109.
Tavris, C., (1993). Hysteria and the Incest Survivor Machine, Sacramento
Bee, Forum section, January 17, p.1.
Introduction Cognitive processes are active. People construct memories, rather than copy, based upon perceiving and encoding an event by sight, words, sound and taste. As perceiving involves constructing a memory, then remembering the original experience comprises reconstruction. However, recollections of past event may encompass errors due to individual assumptions and inferences, rather than traces of the original event. In recent years, both psychologist and public have unprecedented interest pertaining to the accuracy and distortion of memory. The essay will challenge the view that human memory accurately retrieve personal-level representation of past experiences. Evidence for empirical research investigating false memories is demonstrated in Bi Zhu (2011) study, the study strongly investigated that brief exposure to misinformation would result in long-term false memory and memory trace strength was similar for both true and false memories. Whereas, the Roediger and McDermott(1995)’s list learning paradigm revealed remarkable high levels of false recall and recognition. Evidence The constructive phenomenon to memory, which manifests that memory is constructed by individual based upon original event in addition to individual’s own knowledge, experience and expectations supports the idea of false memory. The study conducted by Bi Zhu (2011) have shown that subject’s memory of the original event was affected by the misinformation received and hence false memories were created. The main aim of the study investigated whether brief exposure to misinformation would create false memories and persist for an extended period (one and half years). (Bi Zhu., Chuasheng Chen., Elizabeth Lotfus, 2012). The primary independent variable of the study is the misleading or leading information provided in the narrations. The dependent variable is the extent to which misled participants incorporate the misleading suggestions into their recognition tests. Out of the 437 original participants (189 male and 248 females), 342 participants took part in the long-term follow test. It should be noted that at the end of the original test, the participants weren’t aware that a follow-up test would be conducted again 1.5 years later. (Bi Zhu., Chuasheng Chen., Elizabeth Lotfus, 2012) In the experimental paradigm introduced by Bi Zhu, participants undertook a standard 3-stage misinformation exposure (saw the event, read the narration with misinformation and then took the memory tests). Participants were shown 2 separate events with each consisting of 50 slides; of which 12 critical slides followed up with inaccurate descriptions in the subsequent narrations and 38 accurate descriptions (Bi Zhu., Chuasheng Chen., Elizabeth Lotfus, 2012). Throughout the recognition tests, the questions were offered in random chronology of events depicted in the slides. Choices were detailed depicted within the picture (‘original item’) or detail presented in the narrations with misinformation (‘misinformation item’) or new foil details (‘foil items’). (Bi Zhu., Chuasheng Chen., Elizabeth Lotfus, 2012) A follow- up test occurred one and half years after the initial study with the same participants. The participants observed the same two 50-slide events again, however the slides were stopped right before the critical slides. The critical slides weren’t presented, instead, the subjects were asked what happened in the missing slide based on their observations 1.5 years ago. (Bi Zhu., Chuasheng Chen., Elizabeth Lotfus, 2012) The results showed at experiment one, participants showed good memory of original event if 61% [overall true memory], 31% of misinformation items [overall false memory], but only 8% of foil items. (Bi Zhu., Chuasheng Chen., Elizabeth Lotfus, 2012) However, the results for experiment two (experiment conducted 1.5 years later) indicated memory decay was prominent shown by the decrease of original item average endorsement rate of 45%, and an increase in misinformation of 39%, and 17% for foil items. (Bi Zhu., Chuasheng Chen., Elizabeth Lotfus, 2012) The experimental paradigm showed about half of false memory was maintained at Time 2, and at the same rate as true memory. The results showed a remarkable high negative correlation between exposure to false misinformation and true memory. The increasingly response of false recognition for critical items and responses were associated with high levels of confidence or remember judgements. Although misinformation false memory and misinformation foil are both inaccurate false memories, due to post misinformation exposure, the participants were more prone to select misinformation items than foils throughout the experiment. (Bi Zhu., Chuasheng Chen., Elizabeth Lotfus, 2012) Another study by Roediger and McDermott (1995) developed a list learning paradigm which revealed significant levels of false recall and recognition. The primary purpose of experimental study was to determine whether participants could avoid false memories in false recognition paradigm. Roediger and McDermot (1995) reported 2 experiments which was modelled after J.Deese’s 1959 study. The independent variable determining the design of experiment include “item type” (related lures/controls, studied items and unrelated items) and between-subjects factor “group” (experimental and control group). The primary dependant variable was the probability of which a list produced a false memory (probability of falsely recalling critical word. The participants of the experiment were 36 university undergraduate psychology students. In the first experiment, participants studied list of 12 words (table, sit, legs, sea, soft, arm, cushion); each list was composed of a non-presented word (e.g. chair) and 30 non studied items. The non-studied items involve (a) six critical words (b) 12 words generally unrelated to any items on six lists (c) 12 words weakly related to the list (Roediger. H & Dermott. K, 1995). Throughout the recognition test, participants were tested on both studied and non-studied items, including the critical non-presented words. In the second experiment, 30 university students were presented 16 lists; 8 lists were followed by an immediate free recall test, and 8 others which weren’t followed by an initial test. The remaining tests 8 lists weren’t studied. (Roediger. H & Dermott. K, 1995) In the first experiment, partisans recalled 40% of critical non-presented word of the 12 word lists (Roediger. H & Dermott. K, 1995). In the second experiment, subjects recalled 55% of the critical non-presented word (Roediger. H & Dermott. K, 1995). The paradigm demonstrated high levels of false recognition for critical items and responses were accompanied with high confidence or remember judgements. In the recalling session, the accurate recognition of studied items and false recognition of critical non-studied items increased. Overall, throughout Bi Zhu (2011) misinformation paradigm, the participants undertook external suggestion and misattributed it to their personal memory of the original event. The misinformation paradigm illustrates that inaccurate information after an event is frequently incorporated into one’s memory for the event. However, in the Roediger and McDermot (1995) experiment demonstrated that participants depend on internal generation of the critical lures. It involves task-or stimulus specific false memories, which is highly relied on the nature of the semantic networks. Interpretation In the current study of Roediger and McDermott (1995) and Bi Zhu (2011), several underlying strengths and limitations were present throughout the study conduct. Based on normative association from list words to the non-presented critical word in the Roediger and McDermott (1995), a major strength is provided a clear operational definition of a variable known to be effective in producing false memories. However, the findings of the current study are limited is shown in the homogeneity of the participant sample. The sample population included Rice University students enrolled in a course of Psychology. The majority of university students with a scientific major, have scored similarly as a group in various cognitive styles. Furthermore, limited small number of subjects participated in the experiment conduct. By testing more subjects in the experiment, more data would be obtained related to false recall and further evidence of cognitive factors which contribute to susceptibility to creating false memories. Also, several limitations of the misinformation paradigm existed which should be considered before definite conclusions can be implemented. Firstly, the major limitation is the study conduct was based upon single item on the questionnaire. The limitations existed due to uncertainty of participant’s ability to remember the particular event or misunderstood the question. Participants may have had confusion of the event with an actual attack due to prior deployments, however chances are not likely due to participants without prior deployments are more susceptible to misinformation effect, and didn’t state the event during the post-test session. (Roediger. H & Dermott. K, 1995). In future studies, further detailed questions may assist in the following issues. Another limitation existed throughout the experimental conduct was a control group which didn’t receive misinformation wasn’t included. The variations in report of a fictional event which reflect “general” higher recall over time need to be included. Despite the limitations, a strength of the misinformation effect have long-term effects outside laboratory. The study may have allowed further awareness on the malleability of memory. (Roediger. H & Dermott. K, 1995) .Conclusion In summary, it was argued that human memory accuracy doesn’t have the ability to precisely retrieve personal-level representation of past experiences and creates false memory. This was supported by the two study conducts in detail. The first study of DRM word list demonstrated that highest levels of erroneous recall and recognition in list learning paradigm. In the second study of the misinformation paradigm, the experimental study showed how brief exposure to misinformation can result in longterm false memory and strength of memory trace was similar for true and false memories. For future studies, further research may allow benefits from extension of the findings. Reference List Bi Zhu., Chuasheng Chen., Elizabeth Lotfus (2012) Brief exposure to misinformation can lead to long-term false memories; Applied Cognitive Psychology p 301-307 Roediger. H & Dermott. K (1995) Creating false memories: remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, p 803- 814